Poland. Republic of
Stanisław ŻMUDA MD PhD
Brigadier General MC
Ministry of National Defence
Basic Task of the Military Medical Service
- Planning & Organization of Medical support of the Polish Armed Forces,
- Provision of adequate prophylaxis, treatment and rehabilitation for the soldiers,
- Ensuring sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic welfare of troops,
- Education and Training of military healthcare professionals,
- Medical facilities funding authority,
- Management and supervision of the stationary medical facilities
- Medical logistics,
- Scientific and research activities,
- Military Medical certification,
- International cooperation,
- Military medical lessons learned process.
The central institution is Department of the Military Medical Service of Ministry of National Defense (MOD). The Department is responsible for overall coordination of the Military Medical Service activities. The Surgeon General of the Polish Armed Forces is the head of the Department. Other institutions are responsible for the medical functional area are:
Directorate of the Military Medical Service subordinated to General Command of the Polish Armed Forces (joint command of Army, Navy, Air Force, Special Forces and Inspectorate of Support) and Medical Service Division of the Inspectorate of Support.
I. Department of the Military Medical Service – subordinated and supervised institutions
The majority of institutions and facilities (total number: 104) are subordinated or supervised by Department of the Military Medical Service. The stationary potential is located in 8 Preventive and Healthcare Regions.
Military Hospitals, Institutes and Outpatient Clinics
Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw (MIM)
MIM consists of The Central Teaching Hospital of MOD – the biggest military hospital in Poland (bed capacity: 978) and the Scientific Part (including Postgraduate Education Centre). The main tasks of MIM are:
- provision of the comprehensive, modern and high-standard health care
- regional trauma centre
- scientific and research activities with special respect to military medicine area
- educational activities and training – especially comprehensive postgraduate training of doctors, nurses and paramedics
- promoting professional development of medical personnel
- development of the health protection programs
The main part of MIM is located in Warsaw. However, there are 2 scientific units located in Łódź (Dept. of Organization of Medical Support and Public Health, Department of Bioethics and Medical Law) as well as 2 units located in Gdynia (Dept. of Maritime and Hyperbaric Medicine, Dept. of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology)
Military Institute of Aviation Medicine in Warsaw (MIAM)
MIAM is a highly specialized institution consisting of scientific and diagnostic part and hospital part. The main tasks of MIAM are:
- conducting scientific research activities in fields of aviation medicine
- conducting aviation medicine aptitude tests to qualify airmen, jet pilot candidates, ground crew, paratroops
- providing trainings and courses dedicated to aviation medical personnel
- conducting clinical activities such as prophylaxis, early diagnostics and treatment.
Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Warsaw (MIHE)
The main tasks of MIHE are
- research, prophylaxis, surveillance, and training associated with force health protection
- countermeasures against the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) agents.
The main part of MIHE is located in Warsaw. However, the Biological Diagnostics and Countermeasures Center of MIHE is located in Puławy.
Military Teaching Hospitals, Military Hospitals, Military Resort and Rehabilitation Hospitals, Military Outpatient Clinics
There are four Military Teaching Hospitals located in Wrocław, Bydgoszcz, Kraków and Lublin. There are three Military Hospitals employing civilian and military personnel and five Military Hospitals employing only civilian personnel. Four Resort and Rehabilitation Hospitals employ only civilian personnel. 32 Military Outpatient Clinics employ also only civilian personnel.
Military Preventive Medicine Centers
Five Military Preventive Medicine Centres located in Modlin (near Warsaw), Wrocław, Bydgoszcz, Kraków and Gdynia are common bases of Military Sanitary Inspection, Military Veterinary Inspection, Military Pharmaceutical Inspection. They comprise also laboratory parts and mobile teams used in cases of biological outbreaks.
Military Blood Centre
Military Blood Center comprises the main part located in Warsaw and 8 Regional Stations.
Other Military Medical Institutions
- Military Medical Commissions (medical certification) – Central Commission and 11 Regional Commissions
- 36 Military Psychology Centres
II. General Command of the Polish Armed Forces – subordinated medical units and institutions
The Role 1 elements are integral to military units. The Medical Support Groups of brigades provide Role 2 of medical support.
Military Field Hospitals
There are two Military Field Hospitals located in Bydgoszcz and Wrocław. The 1-st Military Field Hospital in Bydgoszcz was recently reorganized. It comprises staff elements androle 2E / Role 3 medical modules.
Polish Armed Forces Epidemiological Reaction Centre
The Centre is a specialized unit responsible for biological threats countermeasures and MEDINT. It comprises mobile and stationary elements.
Military Medical Training Centre in Lódź
- offers basic and advantaged training and medical care learning programs for career and contract service personnel
- provides training for personnel participating in Polish Military Contingents missions abroad
- organizing and running training courses for military medical specialists
The Center has the unique didactic base dedicated to field medical simulation.
Military Centre of Pharmacy and Medical Technology
The Military Centre of Pharmacy and Medical Technology is a main medical logistics element. At present it is subordinated to Division of Medical Service of Inspectorate of Support.
The ambulances and infirmaries providing “garrison level healthcare” are parts of Military Economic Units subordinated to Inspectorate of Support.
Number of Medical Personnel
Total manpower of the Military Medical Service (all components) consists of: 760 doctors, 150 nurses and 1500 paramedics as well as 8500 civilian medical professionals.
Military medical potential is organized to provide the best possible standards of medical care as well as the continuity of healthcare and evacuation activities (Role 0 – Role 4). The equipment of Role 1-3 include:
- mobile dressing rooms 20’ft container with tents (Role 1)
- immediate care unit based on tents system
- trauma room (triage)
- 40’ft containers – pre- and surgical rooms, intensive care unit and diagnostic/lab elements
- 20’ft containers – pharmacy and logistic equipment
The evacuation capabilities comprise:
- ground evacuation – including armored ambulances
- AREROMEDEVAC – including rotary wing and fixed wing
2005–2009: OIF Iraq Multinational Division Central-South – Role 1 and Role 2
2009–2010: Chad – Role 1
1999–ongoing: KFOR – Kosovo – Role 1
2006–2014: ISAF – Afghanistan – Role 1 and Role 2E
2014–ongoing: Resolute Support – Afghanistan – Role 1
2016–ongoing: Kuwait – Role 1
Other Special Aspects
- Lekarz Wojskowy (Military Doctor) – editor: Military Institute of Medicine
- Skalpel (Scalpel) – editor: Military Medical Chamber