Turkey, Republic of
Prof Hayati Bilgiç MD
Senior Real Admiral
Dean of the Military Medical Faculty
Gülhane Military Etlik
Basic Task of the Military Medical Service
• To conduct pre-service health examination for candidates
• To promote health among servicemen and their families
• To protect health of servicemen and their families
• To provide healthcare for servicemen and their families
• To give medical support during military operations, disasters
• To conduct scientific research and publishing activities to
improve the quality of medical services
• To give consultation and advice to military headquarters
on medical issues
• To have medical organizations in order to conduct these
• Serving with qualified, well educated personnel in all field
of medicine and health management
• Equipped with high technology medical devices and systems
• Constructing buildings with proper architecture for medical
THE TURKISH ARMED FORCES MEDICAL COMMAND
After downsizing, there are 36 military hospitals serving as
secondary health care centres to all servicemen and their
families in the different cities of Turkey. All of these hospitals
have surgical, imaging and laboratory capabilities having
with different number of patient beds.
The Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA) is the
supreme medical consultancy organ of TAF. It
has scientific autonomy and performs scientific
research. The mission of GMMA is to train the
medical personnel and to provide tertiary
healthcare services for Turkish Armed Forces.
GMMA, was founded at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul in 1898
and after several decades, deployed to Ankara, and finally
relocated to its current campus in1971. GMMA has been
serv ing to the community for more than one century.
GULHANE MILITARY MEDICAL ACADEMY COMMAND
In GMMA organization, there are hospitals, special care centres
and educational institutions and these are located in the
cities Ankara, Istanbul and Eskisehir as seen on the map.
The major submits are located in Ankara, Haydarpaşa Training
Hospital and Camlica Special Care Centre are located in
Istanbul and Aerospace Medical Centre is in Eskisehir and
they are all active in training and healthcare services.
More than six thousand (6.289) personnel including five
hundred educational staff are currently working at the
In GMMA, there are three levels of education and training as
undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate.
Four different institutions provide education in different
• Military Medical School for physicians,
• School of Nursing for nurses,
• NCO Health College for Medical NCO,
• Medical Sciences Institute for Master of Science Doctorate
More than thirteen hundred (1.360) students study at three
different schools and approximately five hundred residents,
master and doctoral degree students are trained at the Academy.
Numerous courses have been performed in order to improve
the skills of medical doctors and other personnel such as
laparoscopic surgery, emergency medicine etc.
Currently, one hundred fifty (154) foreign military personnel
from 14 countries are still on education. More than six hundred
foreign personnel have graduated up to the present.
GMMA has more than three thousand (3.356) bed capacity.
In the training hospitals, more than one million patients get
medical services per year. The daily average number of visits
is 5.000. The annual average inpatient visits are more than
forty thousand (42.000).
Thirty thousand (30.000) surgical operations are performed
In Ankara Training Hospital, 24 operation rooms and 100
advanced intensive care units are available. In the Cardiology
and Cardiovascular Surgery Centre, a variety of surgical
procedures are performed.
Liver Transplant Unit has a great success in terms of liver
transplantation. Renal Transplant Unit carries out an average
of 20 renal transplants per year.
One of the most prominent divisions in GMMA is the Orthopaedics
and Traumatology Department. All types of up-todate
surgical operations, specifically trauma surgery are routinely
performed at the department.
In the Department of Combat Surgery:
• Experimental and Clinical studies in the fields of combat
• Problems in field surgical procedures,
• Treatment and follow-up of the personnel injured during
the act of counter terrorism.
Robotic-surgery has been used by several surgical departments.
The role of the Military Psychology and Combat Psychiatry
Department is to protect mental health of Turkish Army Forces
personnel in peace and war time and to provide the best
level of current diagnostic and treatment services based on
the scientific basis.
Bone Marrow Transplantation Centre accomplishes an
average of 50–60 transplants per year.
• IVF Centre is one of the successful national centres with a
55% success rate.
Advanced interventional radiologic procedures are performed
in the department of radiology.
Nuclear Medicine Department uses the latest technologies
for the purpose of diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of a
variety of diseases.
Radiation Oncology Department is also a well-equipped
GMMA Burn Centre is the most prominent national centre. In
addition to burn therapy, free organ and tissue transfers are
Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment Centre successfully treats problematic
wounds including bone infections, sudden hearing
and visual losses and carbon monoxide poisoning. There are
three facilities of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment within Gulhane
Military Medical Academy. Two of them work under
Diving and Marine Medicine in Istanbul and Ankara, last one
serves under Aviation Medicine Centre in Eskisehir.
Public Health Laboratory in GMMA is one of the most ca -
pable laboratories on environmental analyses.
GMMA Public Health Laboratory is especially experienced in
water analyses, and analyse mainly the water sources from
military bases. But also a lot of analyses have been done
from the sources other than military.
Under GMMA Public Health Laboratory, there is a molecular
research laboratory which is named as Centre for Education
and Research on Environment – Gene Interaction. Several
research projects are being conducted in this centre with the
participation of medical faculty students.
A variety of researches have been carrying out at the Research
& Development Centre supported by domestic and
Medical Design and Manufacturing Centre is very talented at
designing and manufacturing individual orthesis, prosthesis,
implants and medical models as needed. Plastic and metal
modelling machines, topographic surface scanner and 5 axis
CNC machine are available at the centre.
Biomedical engineering Centre is one of the most prominent
centres combining medical services with engineering field in
Aviation Medicine Centre (Eskisehir)
Diving and Marine Medicine (Ankara, Istanbul)
Albania (Role 1)
Bosnia Herzegovina (Role 1)
Afghanistan (Role 2)
Kosovo (Role 1)
Lebanon (Role 1)
The Turkish Armed Forces Rehabilitation and Care Centre is
a good sample of civilian military cooperation and has a
variety of medical facilities including two hundred hospital
bed capacities serving not only for military but also for civilian
The mission is to provide early and continuous rehabilitation
and reintegration of the injured and disabled people to the
There are five different inpatient rehabilitation units as
shown on the slide (acute care, traumatic brain injury, spinal
cord injury, amputee rehabilitation and rheumatologic rehabilitation).
The Rehabilitation Hospital also includes a modern operat -
ing room and an intensive care unit.
In the rehabilitation centre, there are six exercise rooms
namely (neurological, orthopaedic, hand rehabilitation,
occupational, paediatric and outpatient).
• Independence Area.
• Robotic rehabilitations.
• Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance Test Laboratory.
• Respiratory Function Test and Isokinetic Test laboratories.
Paediatric rehabilitation unit apart from adult ones. In this
part of the centre spinal cord and brain injured kids as well
as orthopaedic handicapped children are treated.
There are four pools for hydrotherapy.
Several other laboratories are:
• Motion analysis,
• Gluteal pressure mapping,
• Performance lab. (Aerobic, anaerobic, respiratory function),
• Isokinetic test laboratory is used to evaluate the effectiveness
of rehabilitation procedures such as exercise and
orthesis and prosthesis training.
Hyperbaric chamber is also available at the centre.
The centre has a modern and sophisticated assistive technology
laboratory in which all kinds of orthesis and prosthesis
can be manufactured.
The centre also has a variety of rehabilitation programs for
patients having both visual and physical impairments (such
as computer studies, library for blinded, chess, goal ball,
training for independent living activities and Braille alphabet).
Sports activities are very important part of the rehabilitation
programs. The centre has a variety of sportive teams and
activities such as:
• Marksman ship,
• Wheelchair tennis,
• Weight lifting,
• Amputee football,
• Wheelchair basketball,
• Goal ball,
• Riding with disabilities,
• Disabilities swimming (planed),
• Wheelchair rugby (planed).
Several courses have been conducting by the trainers as
needed such as computer, painting, wood painting, music,
handicraft, ceramic, knitting, photography and marbling.
There is also a Veteran’s house which has a variety of facilities
including hobby gardens, picnic areas, restaurants and
For veterans a variety of activities like shopping, movies and
theatre shows, concerts, sport competitions, museum and
sightseeing trips are routinely organized.
Other Special Aspects
Gulhane Medical Journal
History of the Gulhane Medical Journal goes back beyond the
second half of the nineteenth century. “Ceride-i Tıbbiye-yi
Askeriye” is the first journal published by the Turkish military
medical community between 1871 and 1931. This journal
was published as “Askeri Tıp Mecmuası”, “Askeri Sıhhiye
Mecmuası”, “Askeri Sıhhiye Dergisi” and “GATA Bülteni” between
1921 to 1931, 1931 to 1949, 1949 to 1956 and 1956
to 1998, respectively. The journal is currently
being published as “Gülhane Tıp Dergisi” (“Gulhane Medical Journal”)
since the September 1998 issue.
Gulhane Medical Journal has always kept in step with the
innovations, and has become a peer-reviewed journal before
many journals in Turkey. Being published regularly four
times a year for more than half century, the journal has carried
its respectful role among the distinguished national
journals. Currently it accepts manuscripts from all around the
world via online. It can be accessed at: